Proper Charging with Subcooling

Subcooling seems to be a great mystery to a lot of service techs in the field yet, any unit with a TXV type metering device, should be charged by subcooling instead of superheat. Since a TXV has a pre-set superheat (or an adjustable superheat) setting, it will always try to maintain that superheat even if the unit is over or under charged. This is why charging by subcooling is important for units equipped with TXV’s.

Let’s review the process of subcooling first, and then see how to charge by subcooling. The compressor puts out HOT HIGH PRESSURE VAPOR as part of the compression process. This vapor enters the condenser coil, which performs the function its name states, to turn the vapor into a liquid. As the vapor travels through the condenser, heat is removed and the vapor starts to turn to liquid. At some point in the coil, the vapor has been turned to all liquid. This is called saturated liquid and corresponds to the temperature and pressure you read on your gauges. This usually occurs before all the passes in the coil have been used. These extra passes through the coil take the saturated liquid and removes even more heat, or, subcools the refrigerant. This is important, since a metering device must have a continuous column of liquid to operate properly. By subcooling the liquid before it leaves the condenser, we “guarantee” that the liquid will remain liquid all the way to the TXV. If there is insufficient subcooling, the liquid can turn back to a gas (flash gas) and the metering device will not properly meter the refrigerant into the coil.

Now that we understand how subcooling is suppose to work, we can now proceed with how to charge by subcooling. As stated earlier, when your gauge set is attached to the unit, the “head” or liquid pressure you read is the saturated liquid temperature/pressure. Knowing this, and the manufacturer’s recommended subcooling, you can properly charge the unit. You need to strap a thermometer or thermocouple to the liquid line out side the condenser so you can read its temperature and then add or remove charge to get the desired subcooling for that unit.

Let’s look at an example. If you had a “head pressure” of 198 PSIG and looked at a temperature/pressure chart, you would see that the saturated temperature is 100 degrees. If the unit required 10 degrees of subcooling, the thermocouple attached to the liquid line should read 90 degrees (10 degrees “colder” than saturated temperature). Let’s say the thermocouple reads 101 degrees. Do I add or remove refrigerant to get the 90 degrees temperature I need? The key to answering this is to remember that the closer to ZERO or temperatures above the saturated temperature, indicates an undercharge. Think of it this way, since the unit is short of refrigerant, the discharge temperature of the compressor increases because there isn’t sufficient cooling of the compressor. Since the discharge temperature is higher, it will require more of the condenser coil to remove the heat of compression, which causes little or no subcooling. So, we need to add refrigerant to cool the compressor to lower the discharge temperature to get our desired subcooling.

Conversely, if the liquid line were 80 degrees, this would be 20 degrees of subcooling, which is an overcharge. The compressor is cold, the discharge temperature is down, the condenser does not have to remove as much heat, so the refrigerant reaches saturated temperature quicker leaving more coil passes for subcooilng. In order to get the 10 degrees desired subcooling, we would need to recover refrigerant to raise the compressor discharge temperature to require more of the condenser to be used to reach saturated temperature leaving us with the proper amount of passes to subcool the saturated liquid.

If you keep this in mind, properly charging a unit by subcooling will become very easy.

About yorkcentraltechtalk

I have been in the HVAC industry most of my life. I worked 25 years for contractors on anything from residential to large commercial boilers and power burners. For the past 23+ years I had been employed by York International UPG Division ( a division of Johnson Controls) as a Technical support/Service Manager but I am now retired. One of my goals has always been to "educate" dealers and contractors. The reason for starting this blog was to share some knowledge, thoughts, ideas, etc with anyone who takes the time to read it. The contents of this blog are my own opinions, thoughts, experiences and should not be construed as those of Johnson Controls York UPG in any way. I hope you find this a help. I always welcome comments and suggestions for postings and will do my best to address any thoughts, questions, or topics you may want to hear about. Thanks for taking the time to read my postings! Mike Bishop
This entry was posted in HVAC Tech Support. Bookmark the permalink.

12 Responses to Proper Charging with Subcooling

  1. Mike says:

    The explanation I was looking for, thanks for info.

  2. Jonathan says:

    Very good and many thanks for sharing.

  3. Chilly says:

    Where do you take your liquid line temp on a package unit, as you stated “outside of the condensor”……im not sure of this because nothing is exposed, it is a 20 ton Lennox package unit with dual compressors?……

    • you may need to contact Lennox, but your condenser coil has a hot gas discharge line into it and a liquid line out of it. If you cannot find it near the condenser — try taking the temp near the metering device at the indoor coil

  4. Jess says:

    Liquid line just after the condenser.

  5. Pingback: Two Weeks in the Life | Those Rascally Repairmen

  6. Ray says:

    Great explanation! Thanks for taking the time to post this. Just what I was looking for.

  7. Cesar Calderon says:

    Question, To increase the sub cooling in a system we take off refrigerant and to decrease it we add right?

    • If you look at the examples in my post, it should give you your answer.
      Basically, if your liquid line temperature is the same or higher than your saturated temperature, the system is undercharged so you need to add refrigerant to the system to drop the liquid line temp to the desired subcooling.

  8. Moses says:

    Whats the process when some condenser fans run off hp pressure switches? Must all fans be running when readings are being taken? In my situation, I’m charging a DX system. The remote condenser has one fan that runs at all time, 2 fans roughly cycle between 260psi to 230psi. 3 other fans come on when the ambient air hits 30 degrees? Does it even matter?

    • Charging should always be done with all fans operating per each compressor (if there are multiple compressors in the system) or, if the compressor is multistage or has unloaders, the compressor must be at full capacity.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s