Furnace Pressure Switches

As we start the heating season, we already have been getting questions about the vent pressure switches in furnaces.  I usually hear something like this, “I’m getting a flash code 3 – open pressure switch.  I jump the switch and the furnace works.  I’ve changed the switch twice and still have the same thing. Do you have a bad batch of pressure switches?”  What’s wrong with this diagnosis?

What’s wrong is that the tech did not do a complete diagnosis of the issue.  Flash codes are present to give the tech a direction. It is then up to the tech to see why that flash code is occurring , to use the proper tools, and see why the switch is not closing.  In the case above, all he did was jump the switch out.  He never found out why the switch was staying open in the first place. As with any safety, it is there for a reason and to respond to some unsafe condition.  Just by-passing the safety and seeing the unit work is not a diagnosis. It just verifies that the safety is doing it’s thing.

So, what do we need to know in order to make a proper diagnosis of pressure switches?  First and foremost, pressure switches react to pressure, in this case the vent pressure or the intake pressure. If it is out of range, the switch will not allow the unit to work because there is an unsafe condition in either the intake or vent or somewhere in the total vent process.  All pressure switches have a setting on them which is either the open or close point. It is usually listed as PF (pressure Fall) or PR (pressure rise) along with the setting number. ie: 0.9 PF would open if the vent pressure dropped below 0.9 IWC.  This is usually within a tolerance of 0.05 IWC (so the range in the example above is 0.85 to 0.95 IWC). 

Since these safeties react to pressure, then the first diagnosis is to measure the pressure. To do this, you need a magnahelic, manometer, or something that can read pressure. You need to do it while the system is operating so you need some tees to put into the pressure switch tubings so the switch is active while performing your test.  A typical hook up would look like this:

With this arrangement, you can now see if there is enough vent pressure to close the switch based on its trip point rating.  Without knowing the pressure, all you can do is guess.  If the pressure reading is below the trip point, there is something wrong in the  system and the switch is doing what it is designed to do.  This could be a restriction in the vent pipe, a restriction in the intake, a faulty inducer, a blocked drain,  a heat exchanger problem, sagging vent pipe creating a trap and holding water reducing the size of the pipe, lenght of the pipe, type of elbows used, size of the pipe, and so on.  Since 90+% furnaces are a category 4 appliance, the whole system includes the primary and secondary heat exchangers, the inducer, the vent and intake pipes, the drains, anything that the products of combustion have to travel through to get to the outside or bring combustion air into the furnace.  If any one or more of these has a problem, then the pressure switch is responding correctly and not letting the unit run.

If the pressure is above the set point on the switch, then we need to verify that the contacts in the switch are really open.  In order to do this with the unit running, you need to use the voltage drop method to check the switch.  The voltage drop method is a basic application of Ohm’s Law.  It simply states that the drop in voltage measured across a resistive load (in this case, the pressure switch) is proportional to the resistance.  Therefore, by measuring the low A/C voltage across the pressure switch terminals, we can determine: 

  1. If the pressure switch contacts are closed, and
  2. That the pressure switch impedance is low.

When the pressure switch contacts are closed, the meter should read no more than 0.8 VAC or 800 mVAC. (reference Figure 3 below)

When the pressure drops below the pressure switch setting of the switch, the contacts open and the meter will measure approximately 24 VAC (nominal furnace voltage) across the switch. (Reference figure 2 below)

In order to perform the voltage drop test, connect your meter leads to the pressure switch terminals as shown below:

By checking pressures switches this way, you can see if the switch and the internal contacts are good and not corroded causing a voltage drop that the control board could read as a bad switch.  If you have the correct pressure, and the switch is not closing or is showing more than 0.8 VAC voltage drop, now you can replace the switch. 

Some techs remove the leads and check continuity of the switch with the system running.  The problem with this is most digital meters are “auto-ranging” and can show a closed switch , when in fact, the contacts are corroded and dropping voltage. The preferred method is to always do a voltage drop test across the terminals of the switch.

So, to properly diagnose pressure switch problems, you need to  (1)  CHECK THE PRESSURE AT THE SWITCH and (2) do a voltage drop test across the switch. 

Keep in mind, the voltage drop test can be used for ANY SAFETY — limit switches, rollout switches, pressure switches, or anything that opens and closes contacts.  If you use this method to check switches, you will make a  more accurate diagnosis of the problem and be able to correct it instead of making multiple trips back and changing parts that really may have nothing wrong with them

About yorkcentraltechtalk

I have been in the HVAC industry most of my life. I worked 25 years for contractors on anything from residential to large commercial boilers and power burners. For the past 23+ years I had been employed by York International UPG Division ( a division of Johnson Controls) as a Technical support/Service Manager but I am now retired. One of my goals has always been to "educate" dealers and contractors. The reason for starting this blog was to share some knowledge, thoughts, ideas, etc with anyone who takes the time to read it. The contents of this blog are my own opinions, thoughts, experiences and should not be construed as those of Johnson Controls York UPG in any way. I hope you find this a help. I always welcome comments and suggestions for postings and will do my best to address any thoughts, questions, or topics you may want to hear about. Thanks for taking the time to read my postings! Mike Bishop
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20 Responses to Furnace Pressure Switches

  1. roger daigle says:

    Great article, my first nightmare with a pressure switch ended up with the barbed tube connector on the inducer housing being clogged with rust and debris. I removed the tube out of frustration because everything else checked out ok. (blocking a tube was a favorite trick of a teacher in a troubleshooting class ) Turns out the problem was hidden right in front of me all along. Sometimes the most obvious is the most overlooked!

  2. Wow, surprisingly I never knew this.I have been reading your blog a lot over the past few days and it has earned a place in my bookmarks.Thanks for sharing with us.

  3. vishal says:

    Thanks for the info. I was not knowing somethings and so was doing the testing the wrong way. You are doing a great ssrvice to the techs. Thanks.

  4. Bob Smith says:

    Great article…finally, finally somebody that took the time to explain the use and function of the critical pressure switch(es). Thank you! Bob in Alaska

  5. Pingback: Any heating and AC guys on here

  6. Kevin says:

    Good article for basic diagnosis…
    Please keep in mind that moisture damage from condensate can create nuisance trips so when the tech shows up it is all good at that time.

    Further more you do not indicate that the furnace should be in service for the time it takes for the…
    ” Since 90+% furnaces are a category 4 appliance, the whole system includes the primary and secondary heat exchangers, the inducer, the vent and intake pipes, the drains, anything that the products of combustion have to travel through to get to the outside or bring combustion air into the furnace.”
    flue systems to warm up. systems and people tend to take a short look at a problem instead of watching it. The pressure can and often does drop to right at trip point or below tripping the circuit .

    • Kevin

      thank you for the comment. Yes, you are correct about letting everything warm up. Too often, diagnostics are rushed and not done correctly. I always tell techs, when I’m on the phone, to “watch” the pressure and see if it drops to at or near the switch trip point after the furnace runs for a while. This is also true for 80% furnaces.

  7. Barry says:

    Thanks, very helpful. York with 3 pressure switches, witch one stops the igniter from coming on?

    • if this is an older furnace, the pressure switches were “redundant” safeties -any one of them not making or breaking would not let the furnace come on.
      If this is a newer furnace, to have 3 pressure switches is usually an indication of a 2-stage furnace. In this case 2 of the pressure switches for the staging have to be make when the inducer comes up to high speed before dropping down to first stage. The 3rd pressure switch is there to monitor the drains. If the pressure switches do not close when they sould, ignition usually will not take place.

  8. aundra hanson says:

    thanks looking at manometers now everything you said was true be there done that

  9. Bobby52 says:

    the furnace has to be running? the reason I’m doing a service call is that the furnace isn’t running

    • Is there a flash code on the board? If it is for an open pressure switch (3 flash) and the inducer is not running- you need to find out why the inducer is not running before diagnosing a pressure switch.

  10. Bobby52 says:

    oh sorry I miss read that they changed the pressure switch and it still didn’t run. all I know is that I never had to replace a pressure switch until they started being made in costa rica lol

  11. David says:

    My furnace sounds flooded by the pressure switch is this right

  12. 3puttMonday says:

    Bump. My gas furnace has 2 pressure switches (.40 WC and .90 WC) but the FIRST flash code was 4 red. Changed both limit switches ($12/ ea.- cheap fix) then got the flash code 2 red. Not having manometer I switched out both and now furnace is running fine (.90 WC pres. switch was bad).
    Lessons learned-
    1. I will swap out the bad pressure switch and monitor the voltage against the good pressure switch to verify the voltage drop (save time and a few $$) and more importantly-
    2. REPLACE THE FILTER EVERY 6 MONTHS. For God’s sake the filter was last installed 11/08 (way before I moved in) I can only imagine what other furnace parts took a beating/ aged prematurely. What an ugly lesson to learn on the coldest spell of the year- $%&*#$ me.
    Anyways- thanks for the solid explanation to a newb like me-

  13. Joe H says:

    Great article! I’ve read some interesting articles concerning the usage of general pressure switches being used instead of factory OEM pressure switches. What is your opinion on the usage of a pressure switch other than the factory recommended pressure switch?

    • Depending on the tolerance built into the switch and how the control board will respond to the setting, my stand on safely switches has always been to use OEM parts. In a no heat situation, as an “Emergency” you could try the switch but should come back with the proper part.

      • Joe H says:

        Your response confirms what every article I’ve read to be correct. The reason I asked this question was because a tech…that I called for service’… installed a ‘general purpose’ pressure switch in order to get the furnace to operate. At that particular time, my knowledge was limited and I knew none the wiser. It turned out that the same person installed this furnace, but improperly ‘pitched’ the flue…thus, condensation was staying in the flue triggering a pressure switch error code & causing the furnace not to operate.

        It was only when I called a different tech that the problem was solved. He reconfigured the flue…solving the issue.

        The lesson that I learned is that there are technicians that are more thorough, possess more knowledge, & care about solving an issue. Yet, others cut corners & seem not to give a hoot about what they do.

        Thank you for your information! Happy Holidays!

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